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  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
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  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
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About NDC Explorer

What is the NDC Explorer?
The NDC Explorer is an online tool to analyse and compare countries' (Intended) Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs/NDCs). It is based solely on information in these documents. Get more information on the project and its relevant publications or watch the introduction video!

What are the (Intended) Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)?
In 2013, the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) decided that every member state would submit an 'Intended Nationally Determined Contribution' (INDC). Countries based their INDCs on their specific national priorities, circumstances, and capabilities. The INDCs proved to be a cornerstone to reach the Paris Agreement. Every party that ratifies the Paris Agreement is invited to turn its INDC into a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and to provide a new or updated NDC with increased ambitions every five years (see decision 1/CP.21, §22).
First and foremost, (I)NDCs intend to increase the ambition to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, by outlining countries ‘contributions’. However, most countries also use the opportunity to write about other priorities and ambitions, such as adaptation and finance needs. Countries also used their (I)NDC to highlight other important issues, such as fossil fuel subsidy reform or linkages to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Aim of the NDC Explorer
The NDC Explorer has two aims. First, it provides a neutral, sophisticated and user-friendly lens to analyse and compare both qualitative and quantitative (I)NDC content that can be used for policymaking, research and advocacy.
Second, the NDC Explorer stimulates the debate on content, scope as well as formulation and implementation processes of the national climate action plans. In doing so, it supports policy makers in formulating improved and more ambitious NDCs in 2020 and thereafter (see 1/CP.21, §23).

Subcategories, legends and analysis
According to Mbeva and Pauw, 2016, the UNFCCC guidance for INDC formulation (see decision 1/CP.20, § 10-17) was very limited and unclear. (I)NDCs thus vary greatly in terms of structure, content, scope, level of detail, and metrics used. As a result, it is sometimes difficult to fit all (I)NDCs under one subcategory with exclusive legend items (countries can only fall under one legend item). Wherever possible, we added legend items for (I)NDCs who provided more details.
For example, we demarcate mitigation as 'focus areas' when (I)NDCs 1) explicitly highlights and/or prioritises this sector; 2) and/or underlines the sector’s mitigation potential among other sectors; 3) and/or prioritises investments in this sector. Furthermore, we therefore added country-specific information in many subcategories.
The tool also allows for comparison across subcategories. For example, there are seven subcategories on mitigation sectors which have exactly the same legend; and under adaptation we illustrate the most frequently mentioned climate risks, vulnerabilities, and priority sectors across INDCs.

Thorough and strict analysis
The team aimed to be as factual as possible and to avoid interpretations of (I)NDCs. This meant we sometimes had to exclude countries from certain legend items if they did not refer to certain concepts explicitly (such as REDD+ or SDGs and their expansions), but only described related issues or plans instead. The same accounts for sectors (e.g. derivatives of ‘agriculture’ or ‘transport’). In other cases, we identified information in particular sections, such as ‘planning process’ or ‘fairness and ambition’. We focused on the (I)NDC contributions until 2030.
The NDC Explorer is solely based on information communicated by Parties to the UNFCCC in their (I)NDCs. The dataset was jointly established by the German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and the Frankfurt School - UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance (since 2018) in cooperation with the UNFCCC secretariat.

Country groups
The regional and income-level country groups are based on the World Bank Country Groups. Additional groups are available in the raw data only.

Suggestions for improvement
The project team did a careful data analysis, but cannot guarantee that there are no mistakes made. In case you come across any inconsistencies, please contact us.

Developed by
The initial development of the NDC Explorer was led by Pieter Pauw (DIE, later Frankfurt School) and supported by Davide Cassanmagnano (independent consultant), Kennedy Mbeva (ACTS), Jonas Hein, Alejandro Guarin, Clara Brandi (all DIE), Adis Dzebo, Kevin Adams, Aaron Atteridge, Nella Canales (all SEI), Thomas Bock, Joana Helms, Alina Zalewski, Ezra Frommé, Anika Lindener and Dilsham Muhammad (all DIE) as well as colleagues from the UNFCCC secretariat.
Sönke Kreft, Magdalena Mirwald and Eike Behre of the Munich Climate Insurance Initiative (MCII) contributed the subcategory "Climate risk insurance" in October 2017.
Guy Cunliffe and Harald Winkler of the Energy Research Centre (ERC) of the University of Cape Town contributed the subcategory "Global temperature target" in October 2018. Find a publication on the original data here.
In September 2019, the subcategory "Fossil fuel production" has been added. This project was led by Cleo Verkuijl, Natalie Jones, and Michael Lazarus (Stockholm Environment Institute), and supported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida. Data on countries' fossil fuel production was obtained from the International Energy Agency World Energy Balances (Edition 2018), which considers country data for 2016. A 2019 Stockholm Environment Institute working paper conducts a similar analysis for the NDCs of the 57 of the world's biggest fossil fuel producers.

Starting in November 2021, the NDC Explorer will be successively updated with the Parties’ new and updated NDCs. The update is led by Tanja Beck with support from Clara Brandi, Luisa Hieckel (student assistant) and Mariya Aleksandrova (data reviewer) (all DIE), as well as Pieter Pauw, María José Valverde, Khayala Sadikhova, Tim Stutzmann and Michael König(all Frankfurt School - UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance).

The NDC Explorer is a contribution to the NDC Partnership Knowledge Portal and is financed by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) with additional financial contributions by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and the Swedish Research Council Formas.

Details on the 2021 update
As of November 2021, all new and updated NDCs submitted up to early August 2021 are included in the NDC Explorer. If the Parties did not submit an English version of their NDCs, a translation was used from Climate Watch. Only in two instances (Republic of Guinea, Republic of the Congo) the NDCs have been translated by the project team using Deepl.

The following subcategories have been updated: “Global division by income”, “Type of targets”, “Limiting global temperature increase”, “Costs of mitigation/investment needs”, “Reducing non-CO2 gases”, “International market mechanisms”, “Human mobility” (prior migration and displacement), “Costs of recent climate-related hazards (currency US$)”, “Costs of future climate-related hazards (currency US$)”, “Climate risks: extreme weather”, “Climate risks: floods”, “Climate risks: droughts”, “Slow onset process: temperature increase” (prior climate risk), “Slow onset process: sea level rise” (prior climate risk), “Costs of adaptation/investment needs”, “Conditionality of adaptation finance”, “Conditionality of mitigation finance”, “Conditionality of technology transfer”, “Conditionality of capacity building”, “Means of Implementation and fairness/equity”, “Climate risk insurance” and “Fossil fuel subsidy reform”.

Regarding the “international market mechanisms” updates, the subcategory’s classifications/legend were modified such that data previously logged under (I)NDCs may be subject to changes.

Moreover, the scope of analysis has been expanded. Thus, the following subcategories have been added: “Article 2.1”, “Government tools on finance: Financial policies and regulations”, “Government tools on finance: Fiscal policy levers”, “Government tools on finance: Public finance”, “Government tools on finance: Information instruments”, “Private sector investments”, “Other slow onset processes” and “Base year”.

In case a subcategory is classified with “no data”, the category is not updated yet.

UK has been added as a new country to all data sets. In INDC and First NDC data sets, UK shows the values of Europen Union.

Download Data
The German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) holds the copyright to the NDC Explorer and the database that it is based on. Both are licenced under Creative Commons CC BY 4.0. You are free to download and use the data following the conditions of this licence. Go to the downloads.

Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung

Download data

You are warmly invited to download and use the data of the NDC Explorer under the following conditions. The data is licenced under CC BY 4.0. If you share, copy and redistribute the material you must give appropriate credit (name creator, copyright notice, licence notice and a link to the material). If you remix, transform or build upon the material you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original, and indicate the changes you have made.

Please consider that the underlying data is updated on a regular basis, e.g. with new NDCs releases. Therefore, please state the date of your download when referring to the data.

The last update of the data was:

November 30, 2021

Below you find three types of files: three plain text table files (comma-separated csv, tab-separated tsv, semicolon-separated ssv), one JSON and one XML meta description.

If you are a researcher or practitioner, you might make the most use of the CSV/TSV/SSV files which include the data of the INDCs, the NDCs and the defined legend items, and can be and can be opened by most spreadsheet software. We advise you to use an open calculator software and to check the data formatting carefully when opening the first time.

File Description Size Last changed Download
INDC data Analysis of all INDCs submitted to the UNFCCC 400KB November 30, 2021 csv, ssv, tsv
NDC data Analysis of all NDCs submitted to the UNFCCC 400KB November 30, 2021 csv, ssv, tsv
New/Updated NDC Analysis of all New/Updated NDCs submitted to the UNFCCC 510KB November 30, 2021 csv, ssv, tsv
All in one Analysis of INDCs, NDCs, New/Updated NDCs and legend items 5MB November 30, 2021 json (5MB)
 
Categories Categories and legend items 25KB November 30, 2021 csv, ssv, tsv (25KB)
Metadata DataCite XML 10KB November 30, 2021 xml (10KB)


Please find latest data before the 2021 update (DOI: 10.23661/ndc_explorer_2017_2.0):

File Description Size Last changed Download
10.23661ndc_explorer_2017_2.0_all-files_20200318 All data 350KB March 18, 2020 zip



© German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)

Suggested citation:

Pauw, Pieter / Beck, Tanja / Valverde, María José et al. (2021): NDC Explorer. German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Frankfurt School - UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance. DOI: 10.23661/ndc_explorer_2021_3.0

Contact: klimalog@die-gdi.de

DIE, SEI, ACTS, FS-UNEP BMZ

Welcome to the

NDC Explorer

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In process

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